Category Archives: Theology

Angelogy 101

Have you ever seen an angel? No, I’m not talking about your precious baby lying in the crib “looking like an angel.” And I’m not talking about Monica on “Touched By An Angel.” I’m talking about a real angel. On the one hand, no one can concretely confirm that they encountered an angel. On the other hand, how do you know you haven’t?

Angels are real. The Bible is saturated with angels, making direct reference to them over 230 times. Over 275 times in Scripture God is referred to as the “Lord of hosts” (“hosts” being a reference to the angelic armies of heaven). Angels are mentioned in 39 biblical books (19 in the OT; 20 in the NT). One writer said, “We can as easily think of summer without flowers as of the Bible without angels.”

Who are angels?

Angels are created beings

Just like everything other than the Godhead, angels were created. Specifically, the Lord Jesus created them (Colossians 1:16; cf. Psalm 148.1-5).

They didn’t evolve. There is no such thing as “angelic metamorphosis”. Butterflies start out as butterfly eggs that, after a few weeks, become caterpillars. With the passage of more time, the caterpillar eventually grows wings. Angels and butterflies have nothing in common except the fact that God created both of them. No angel “earns his wings” contra Clarence Odbody in “It’s a Wonderful Life.”

And as created beings, angels are no more worthy of our worship than a butterfly! And Paul warns about such angelic worship in Colossians 2:18.

When were they created?

They are not referred to in the creation week of Genesis 1. Perhaps the best clue we have to when angels were created is Job 38.4-7. God ask Job, “Where were you when I laid the foundation of the earth? …On what were its bases sunk, or who laid its cornerstone, when the morning stars sang together and all the sons of God shouted for joy?

The terms “morning stars” and “sons of God” apparently refer to angelic choruses that broke out in joyous praise of God as He created. Thus, angels were created prior to the creation of the earth.

How many were created?

A LOT! While we do not know a specific number, the Bible makes it vividly clear that is wasn’t just a handful.

Jesus in Gethsemane makes reference to the ease with which He could have had twelve legions of angels at His side (Matthew 26:53). A Roman legion at full strength had 6000 soldiers. Sometimes they would have equal the number of support troops. So, twelve legions could be anywhere from 72,000 to 144,000.

At Jesus birth there was a “multitude of the heavenly host” (Luke 2.13). Something tells me that a “multitude” is much larger than even 144,000.

Scripture clearly teaches the same. Sometimes they are compared to the stars (“host of heaven” is used to describe the stars in Deut. 17.3 and the angels in 1 Kings 22.19).

A new study ( in 2010 suggests there are a mind-blowing 300 sextillion stars! That’s a 3 followed by 23 zeros. Or 3 trillion times 100 billion.

Could there really be billions upon billions of angels? Evidently. Consider Revelation 5:11 where an expression (“myriads of myriads and thousands of thousands”) is used by John to denote a number that is innumerable! That’s the same conclusion the writer of Hebrews reinforces (see Hebrews 12:22).

Now, just because the innumerable number is unknown to us, that doesn’t mean God doesn’t know how many angels He created. If He knows how many hairs are on our heads (Mt 10.30) and how many stars decorate the universe (and even knows them by name! Ps. 147.4), then He obviously knows the total count of angels.

Angels are personal beings

Angels are persons. Not “super humans” but persons. They have intellect, feelings and the ability to make decisions and obey commands.

On resurrection morning an angel converses with the two Marys and gives instructions to come and see where Jesus had previous been buried (Matthew 28:5–6).

Consider Ezekiel 28.12: “Son of man, raise a lamentation over the king of Tyre, and say to him, Thus says the Lord God: “You were the signet of perfection, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty….” These words are written to an earthly king who personified the devil and has things addressed to him as if he were Satan. From this passage it seems safe to conclude that Lucifer, the archangel who fell and became Satan, was the most intelligent of all the angels and perhaps of all creation!

No angel, however, is omniscient! 1 Peter 1.12 makes it clear that they do not understand everything that is involved in the gospel and unfolding drama of redemption, but they are greatly interested!

When you read Revelation 19.9-10 it seems very obvious that the angel here responds with strong emotion when telling John to not worship him. “Don’t you dare do that!”

Study Luke 15.8-10 and note especially the woman’s words in verse 9: “Rejoice with me…!” Then the connective application made about the Lord in verse 10: “Likewise there is joy/rejoicing before the angels of God.” God’s joy over someone who repents is compared with the woman’s joy. If her friends joined her in rejoicing, surely the angels do likewise with the Lord!

Angels are spirit beings

Hebrews 1:13–14 refers to angels as “ministering spirits”. They have no material body, at least not the kind we’re familiar with. But that doesn’t prevent them from appearing in visible form when God deems it necessary. Throughout Scripture, whenever they do make these “appearances”, the angel is always described as a man. Masculine pronouns are used w/o exception. In Gen 18-19 when angels visit Abraham and Lot in Sodom, they looked and acted just like ordinary men. They conversed in human language, they walked, sat down and ate food.

At other times their appearance is anything but “ordinary” (Matthew 28:3). Sometimes their appearance and/or messages caused great consternation and fear (e.g. Luke 2.9; Matthew 28.4).

Angels are servant beings

They were specifically sent to minister to Jesus (Matthew 4.11)

How did they minister to Jesus? The text doesn’t tell us, but we can use our sanctified imaginations and figure they probably brought food for His body. Undoubtedly they still worshiped Him as was their normal response to God the Son. Surely they offered words of encouragement.

They are specifically sent to minister to believers (Hebrews 1.14)

The Bible gives us no reason to think that angels minister to unbelievers. Nowhere that I’m aware of are angels serving unbelievers.

If someone claims to have encountered an angel and that person does not know Christ as Savior, it doesn’t mean they definitely did not meet an angel—it simply may have been a fallen one! Not all angels are from God (2 Corinthians 11.14)!

This is the first of what will be a series of posts on angels. Hopefully, other questions you may have about angels will receive a biblical answer in these future posts.


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When Clarence Odbody Teaches Theology

One of my favorite movies of all time is Frank Capra’s 1946 film It’s a Wonderful Life. Though I’ve watched parts of it dozens of times, I could sit down today, enjoy it again, and yes, need a Kleenex for the tears that would undoubtedly roll down my cheeks when George Bailey kisses that stairwell knob, rediscovers Zuzu’s petals, and greets all his friends who bring money to help repay his $8000 “debt” to Potter.

Unfortunately, some people have gotten some of their theology from the movie, and specifically from Clarence Odbody, George Bailey’s guardian angel. He is presented in the film as an Angel Second Class who, if he is able to save George’s life and convince him of the good he’s done for others, he just might earn his wings after 200 years of being unsuccessful. At the end of the movie, with the Bailey family and friends all singing around the Christmas tree, a bell sounds supposedly indicating that Clarence had indeed earned his wings.

It’s a Wonderful Life may be a wonderfully heart-warming movie, but it’s definitely not the source for developing our angelology! Why do I say that? Because of what I’ve read and heard lately by loving, well-meaning people with regard to the death and heavenly promotion of Lydia Byrd last Wednesday. You can read more that her story here and here and her funeral service here. And her mom’s blog can be read here.

Lydia, a few months short of her eighth birthday, did not become an angel when she went to Heaven. Nowhere in the Bible is this even suggested. Angels are angels. People are people. True angels do not earn their wings; they’re created with them to begin with and some have up to six wings (Isa. 6.2).

Yes, lovely Lydia had angelic beauty, but again, she did not become an angel when she went to Heaven. She’s still Lydia. Lydia without pain and suffering. Lydia without anymore tumors. But when her parents one day see her again in glory, she will not have angelic wings or a halo; she will be Lydia.

Do we have any similarities with angels? Yes…

Angels are “persons” in that they have personality and names (though Michael and Gabriel are the only ones we know), they worship God (Heb. 1.6), they rejoice (Rev. 5.11-12), they communicate (Rev. 19.9-10), etc.

Angels are servants of God as are believers (Heb. 1.14; Mt. 4.11).

God’s angels are “elect” (1 Tim. 5.21) as are Christians (2 Tim. 2.10), but only believers are elect with regard to redemption. In fact, salvation history is something that angels find intriguing and want to explore further (1 Pet. 1.12).

Angels even take on human likeness at times and give us an opportunity to show hospitality toward them without being aware of it (see Heb.13.2)! But, that does not mean that we ever become one of them.

Misunderstanding of a few verses has probably contributed to this mistaken notion that people, especially children, become angels after death. For example, Matthew 20.30 states that “in the resurrection [people] neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven.” Notice it doesn’t say that people become angels, but that they are like them in that believers in their glorified bodies living in the eternal heaven will no longer marry. Angels have never married. Believers in heaven will no longer have spouses either. There is a similarity there, but not equality.

When believers get to heaven they will not mistake some angel for their loved ones. They will see and recognize angels as angels and their saved friends and family as part of redeemed humanity. Let the Bible be your source of authority, not Clarence Odbody.


Posted by on October 31, 2011 in Angels, Bible Study, Heaven, Theology


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Remembering More than 9/11

Who will forget what they saw on Tuesday morning, September 11, 2001? Our collective jaws gaped open when we saw jet airliners filled with passengers veer off course and plunge into the World Trade Centers. We were dumbfounded to learn that another jet had plowed into the Pentagon and yet another crashed in a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania. Unless we lose our ability to remember anything about our lives, we will never forget that day.

We watched thousands of people die right before our eyes. We saw people jump from windows, preferring a quick death of a fall to the tortuous death of fire. We watched in utter dismay as the two 110-story skyscrapers collapsed, one-by-one, with clouds of dust and debris spreading for miles and lasting for days.

And as Al Mohler noted, “The symbolism was unavoidable.” In attacking the Trade Centers the terrorists were attacking America’s economy. In attacking the Pentagon they were sending a message to the world’s greatest military power. America didn’t seem quite as powerful that day. No, she seemed more vulnerable than ever.

9/11 has been the subject of millions of conversations. With events like these and the ensuing conversations, accusations are made, fingers are pointed, and countless questions are asked. That’s pretty much the way it’s always been, and it was certainly that way in Jesus’ day, just read Luke 13.1-5.

Should we remember what happened on 9/11? Absolutely. But, there’s more that must be remembered…

Our depravity is equal

Pontius Pilate issued an order that caused innocent Galileans to be killed either on their way to offer sacrifices at the Temple or possibly within the very precincts of the Temple. And to make matter worse, he had their blood was mixed with the blood of their sacrifices!

The common misconception of Jesus’ day and ours: when tragedy strikes, it’s partly because of some sin in the lives of those who hit the hardest by the calamity. Evidently some thought that about the murdered Galileans. Someone probably thought similar thoughts about those who died on 9/11. So, what was Jesus’ take on such a conclusion? “No! These people didn’t die because they were worse sinners!”

Okay, so what about the 19 terrorists themselves? Were they greater sinners? Surely they were! And it’s easy for us to think back to 9/11 and feel utter disdain for those Islamic terrorists who murdered “innocent people.” How wicked! How despicable! Yet, anyone of us, left to himself, could commit the vilest of sins. After all, haven’t we thought the thought? Haven’t we murdered others in our mind? Haven’t we conceived, yea, even dreamed of sexual escapades in violation of our marriage vows? Haven’t we wished so-and-so would go to hell? Such thoughts come from our wicked hearts (Matthew 15.19).

All people are born equally depraved? Every human being is dreadfully sinful (Jeremiah 17.9; Romans 3.10-12). At the heart of the human problem is the problem of the human heart.

We all have the same sin problem. We all have the same need for our sin to be cleansed and forgiven. We all have the same need of a Savior!

Our enemy is spiritual

Our enemy is NOT Islam! It’s not any other religion for that matter. Our enemy is NOT flesh and blood (Ephesians 6.12).

Our enemy is spiritual and he has several names and descriptive titles: Satan, Lucifer, that great dragon, the old serpent, the deceiver, the accuser, the deceiver, the father of lies, the prince of the power of the air, and the wicked one.

Who do you think motivated Pontius Pilate to murder these Galileans while they were trying to offer sacrifices to the God of Israel? None other than the one who was a murderer from the beginning (John 8.44)!

Satan hates God, despises Jesus, and can’t stand the Holy Spirit. He loathes the church of Jesus Christ and everything even remotely connected to Christianity. And he has a great host of fallen angels, demonic spirits, who are anxious and ready to do his evil bidding. These demons love to occupy a human body so that they might accomplish hellish destruction in and through that person.

One day he will empower the antichrist, also known as the man of lawlessness and the Son of Perdition, and will create hell on earth during the Great Tribulation. That’s partly because Satan is the ultimate terrorist (Hebrews 2.14-15)!

Our theology is crucial

The problem of evil and suffering is one that demands an answer. It’s the widespread presence of evil and suffering that causes many to doubt whether there is a God at all, or if there is one he must either not care about our condition or if he cares, he’s too weak to do anything about it.

Evil and suffering is commonly divided into two categories: moral and natural. And both are included in our text. The murder of the Galileans is clearly a moral evil, just like the attacks on New York and Washington. Natural evil comes without a moral agent. A tower falls and people die. A tornado twists and people die. An earthquake shakes and people die, a tsunami comes ashore and people die. A hurricane blows and people die.

And then there’s cancer, infections, and a vast variety of diseases that weaken, cripple, and kill people every single day…many of which are Christians.

How can a God of love and omnipotence allow such natural disasters? Why does He allow “good people” to suffer so? Why does God allow terrorists to terrorize? Why doesn’t He put His foot down and stop this madness?

Who is God anyway? According to the Bible, God is sovereign (Daniel 4.35; Psalm 115.3; 135.6). As Creator and Sustainer of the whole universe, He is completely in charge and rules without exception. He builds up kingdoms and tears them down. He elevates and humbles.

God’s sovereignty is universal and unlimited, because limited sovereignty is no sovereignty at all.

Secondly, God is holy. Evil cannot be attributed to Him. His holiness and righteousness are absolute. The same can be said about His love and grace and mercy.

So, if God is holy and just and loving and kind and merciful AND He is also in complete control of all the affairs and all the events of all the people on planet earth, then the question becomes, “How does He exercise His rule?”

The Baptist confession of faith gives us a solid answer: “God from eternity, decrees or permits all things that come to pass, and perpetually upholds, directs and governs all creatures and all events; yet so as not to destroy the free will and responsibility of intelligent creatures.”

God decrees with purpose. He permits with purpose. He allows evil people to make evil choices, BUT He’s always in control of the whole, and He holds everyone accountable for their decisions.

Our death is inevitable

Unless the Lord Jesus comes and raptures all believers, we are going to die. It’s not a matter of if but when (Hebrews 9.27).

Regarding the tower that fell in Siloam (Luke 13.4), R.C. Sproul wrote, In effect what Jesus was saying was this: “You people are asking the wrong question. You should be asking me, ‘Why didn’t that tower fall on MY head?’” (The Holiness of God, p. 161).

The thousands who died on 9/11 went to work that Tuesday morning much like they had done on any other Tuesday. They showered, ate breakfast, stopped at Starbucks, kissed their spouse and kids, jumped on the subway, read the morning paper, and then DIED! One day, you and I will also.

Our soul is eternal

C.S. Lewis wrote: “Pain insists upon being attended to; God whispers to us in our pleasures, speaks in our conscience, but shouts in our pains: it is His megaphone to rouse a deaf world.”

And that’s exactly what He was trying to do to his contemporaries in our story. He was shouting as it were and trying to awaken them to repentance (verses 3, 5)!

Ultimately, repentance is of utmost importance because, if you do not repent, you do not merely stop living life here on earth. No, if you refuse to repent of your sin and trust Christ as your Savior you perish, that is, you die twice. The one death involves the separation of the soul from the body; the body goes into a cold, dark grave; the soul goes to Hell.

When a person’s soul goes to Hell, that’s the second death because then your soul is separated from God for all eternity (see Revelation 20.11-15; 21.8).

With all due respect to those who died on 9/11, and with all due honor and respect to those first responders on the scene that Tuesday morning, the ultimate Ground Zero was at Calvary 2000 years ago when Jesus Christ died on the Cross to make atonement for sin!

Jesus suffered and died to make atonement for your sin. He wants to save you, and He will, if you call upon Him, confessing and repenting of your sin and trusting in Him and Him alone as your Savior and Lord. Just don’t wait until it’s too late! Turn to Him before you experience your own 9/11.

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Posted by on September 12, 2011 in Jesus Christ, Luke, New Testament, Theology


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Treating God Like Chopped Liver

“What am I, chopped liver?” If the Lord ever used urban language, He might have used this expression in 2 Kings 1. King Ahaziah sent messengers to inquire of Baal-zebub, the god of Ekron, as to whether he would recover from an injury he sustained when he fell through the lattice in his upper chamber. Instead of seeking God’s face for the answer, he wanted to consult with the “lord of the flies” (the meaning of “Baal-zebub”).

Bottom line: God was being treated like chopped liver! He was being ignored. He was being viewed as having little value or worth. And that proved to be a deadly mistake.

To guide your reading of 2 Kings 1, here are some plot points:

  • The Injury (2a)
  • The Inquiry (and Idolatry, 2b)
  • The Interception (and Insult, 3-4)
  • The Interrogation (5-8)
  • The Infernos (9-12)
  • The Intercession (13-14)
  • The interruption (15-18)

Four Life Lessons from 2 Kings 1.1-18:

1. There are no accidents with God.

Ahaziah’s fall in verse 2 may appear to be an accident, but you need to read 1 Kings 21.21-22 where God promised Ahab, Ahaziah’s father, that all his sons would be cut off. In other words, God’s sovereign plan was being fulfilled. Ahaziah hardened his own heart, did that which was evil, and treated God like chopped liver.

God is always accomplishing His divine purposes. “Our God is in the heavens; he does all that he pleases” (Psalm 115.3). “Whatever the LORD pleases, he does, in heaven and on earth, in the seas and all deeps” (Psalm 135.6).

2. Occult involvement must be avoided.

Just like Ahaziah, scores of people today (and some of them Christians!) want to know the future, but not in the way God has prescribed. They check their horoscopes. They call a psychic hotline or consult with a palm reader. They play with a Ouija board. God’s position on such activity has always been definitive: Stay away!

Notice Paul’s warning in 1 Corinthians 10.19-20: What do I imply then? That food offered to idols is anything, or that an idol is anything? No, I imply that what pagans sacrifice they offer to demons and not to God. I do not want you to be participants with demons.

So, Paul is issuing a stern warning: Investigation can open the door for demon infiltration!

If you want to know more about the future, read the Bible!

3. Disregarding God is always an act of stupidity.

There a number of ways we do it: blatant disobedience, ignoring biblical preaching and teaching, snubbing the admonition of our parents, turning a deaf ear to the wise counsel of a loving friend or coach, etc.

And when you treat God like chopped liver, you run the risk of getting out of God’s will, leaving His protective care, facing His corrective punishment, or even meeting an untimely death (just ask the Corinthians)!

4. Persistent impenitence leads to an incredibly hard heart and inevitable judgment.

Ahaziah’s life story is tragic and sad. It’s one filled with rebellion and hatred of God. He blatantly refused to repent of his sinful ways. He was brazen, arrogant, and threw away his last opportunity to repent. He traveled that awful path previously taken by the Egyptian Pharaoh who conversed with Moses. He, too, hardened his heart and God destroyed him.

There is a time – we know not when – a place we know not where,

That marks the destiny of men – from glory to despair.

There is a line – by us unseen – which crosses every path,

A hidden boundary between – God’s mercy – and His wrath.

Whoever conceals his transgressions will not prosper, but he who confesses and forsakes them will obtain mercy (Proverbs 28:13 ESV).


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A Spiritual Needs Assessment

Hurricane Irene battered eastern NC for well over 12 hours a few days ago. While only a CAT 1 hurricane, Irene was plenty powerful enough to send thousands of trees to the ground, some landing on top of cars, some crushing people’s houses, and some crushing human beings.

Because of the wind, the flooding, and the downed trees, there were some things we were without for varying amounts of time: lights, A/C, phone service, internet, e-mail, Facebook, Twitter, and TV. More than once during the hurricane, I found myself thinking, I need electricity. I need to connect to my social media outlets. I need Internet service. I need to charge my computer battery.

But I really don’t NEED any of those things. They’re nice. I enjoy them. They make my life more convenient and enjoyable. But, they don’t belong on my “greatest needs list,” not according to the Bible! A quick survey of God’s Word reveals some of our greatest needs to be the need for…

  1. Righteousness – Christ’s righteousness imputed to my spiritual account (Romans 4.1-5, 23-25; 2 Corinthians 5.21). A Christian is saved by grace through faith because of Christ’s redeeming work at Calvary allowing God to be just and the justifier of all who believe in Him as Savior and Lord (Romans 3.23-26). Romans 3.27 then asks an appropriate question in response to salvation being such an incredible work of grace: “Where is boasting then?” The answer: It’s excluded! And that leads to a second NEED…
  2. Humbleness – Acknowledging others as better than yourself and demonstrating a Christlike humility (Philippians 2.3-8). Believers have no basis for pride…none! We owe everything to Him…everything! Go ahead and ask yourself, “What do I have that I did not receive?” An honest answer has to be, “Nothing. Absolutely nothing.” Then why do we often boast as if that were not the case? That’s what Paul wanted to know in 1 Corinthians 4.7.
  3. Repentance – If humility is missing and pride is present, what should a believer do? Repent! Repentance is always what a believer NEEDS to do with his sin. Repent means to change one’s mind and to stop committing the sin. Repentance is what the Lord Jesus repeatedly required when addressing the early churches: Revelation 2.4-5 and 3.19. Proverbs 28.13 teaches that mercy comes to the one who confesses and forsakes his sin.
  4. Forgiveness – We NEED to embrace AND extend forgiveness. That’s exactly what Ephesians 4.32 teaches: “Be kind to one another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another [that’s extending forgiveness], as God in Christ forgave you [that’s embracing forgiveness].” Having been the recipient of God’s gracious forgiveness of our sins, we as believers are to manifest a forgiving spirit toward others. Christ takes this reciprocal forgiveness so seriously that He will withhold forgiveness from the one who withholds it from someone else: Matthew 6.14-15.

Talk about NEEDS! These are some of our greatest: righteousness, humbleness, repentance, and forgiveness. How do you measure up?


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Mistaken identity and divine sovereignty…

The Today Show featured two families who experienced an incredibly unusual experience of mistaken identity. You may recall the event that took place back in 2006. Nine students from Taylor University were involved in a horrible auto accident, with eight of them dying. The only survivor was a blond-haired young lady, who had been thrown from the van, and was found with a purse by her side. Someone put the purse with the girl as identification for her transport to the hospital. Badly injured, she would spend time in ICU and a total of five week in the hospital after the accident. The girl’s name? Since the purse belonged to Laura Van Ryn, that’s who she was believed to be for the next five weeks.

However, as she slowly recovered and began speaking again, the bittersweet discovery was made that the surviving girl was not Laura Van Ryn, but actually Whitney Cerak. Laura was the one who died in the crash.

As you watch this video, you will hear two families speak clearly about their faith and confidence in the sovereignty of God. How refreshing to hear testimony like this on a major network television show! How encouraging for these two families to unashamedly speak about their Lord. See this emotional and God-honoring video interview here.

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Posted by on May 18, 2010 in Theology


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Killed for carrying a girl?!

One headline today at “Palestinian Suspected of Murdering Pregnant Wife Because Ultrasound Showed She Was Having a Girl.”

My fleshly side wants to say to this guy, “Go back and study your biology. If you wanted to kill the one responsible for your wife carrying a girl instead of a boy, you should have killed yourself!” If only he had produced a “Y” chromosome, he would have helped produce that coveted boy.

My “biblical side” however, reminds me that ultimately neither the man nor the woman determines the sex of a child. In fact, they don’t even make the ultimate call about producing a child at all. GOD DOES. He is the giver of life.

David articulated this well when he wrote, “I praise you, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made. Wonderful are your works; my soul knows it very well (Psalm 139.14). God Himself had this to say about His creation of Jeremiah: “Before I formed you in the womb I knew you” (Jeremiah 1.5).

So I wonder, would this Palestinian man really like to KILL GOD for creating a daughter and not a son? The article stated that the man was envious of his brother who has nine sons, while he only has three. Remarkably, envy was one of the motivational factors when God the Son was literally killed. Jesus “knew that it was out of envy that they had delivered him up” (Matt. 27.18).

As sickening and immoral as this man’s actions were in killing his wife, I was struck with the thought of how often I am “displeased” with God’s providence over my own life. Do we as believers in Christ accept all that comes from His hand with appreciation and awareness that He is in control and “does according to His will among the host of heaven 
and among the inhabitants of the earth” (Dan. 4.35)? Lord, please teach me to understand and fully believe that You do all things well.

Oh, and by the way, praise God that within the community of believers, “there is no male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus!” (Gal. 3.28).



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